1. L.D. Hernandez, H.K. Kroh, E. Hsieh, X. Yang, M. Beaumont, P.R. Sheth, E. DiNunzio, S.A. Rutherford, M.D. Ohi, G. Ermakov, L. Xiao, S. Secore, J. Karczewski, F. Racine, T. Mayhood, P. Fischer, X. Sher, P. Gupta, D.B. Lacy, A.G. Therien. Epitopes and Mechanism of Action of the Clostridium Difficile Toxin A-Neutralizing Antibody ActoxumabJ Mol Biol. 2017 Feb 20. pii: S0022-2836(17)30085-2.

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  1. R. Chandrasekaran, A. Kenworthy, D. B. Lacy. (2016) Clostridium difficile Toxin A Undergoes Clathrin-Independent, PACSIN2-Dependent Endocytosis.  PLoS Pathogens.  12(12):e1006070.

  1. N.M. Chumbler, M.A. Farrow, L. A. Lapierre, J. L. Franklin, D. B. Lacy(2016) Clostridium difficile toxins TcdA and TcdB cause colonic tissue damage by distinct mechanisms. Infect Immun. 84(10): 2871-2877

  1. C. González-Rivera, AM Campbell , SA Rutherford, TM Pyburn, NJ Foegeding, TL Barke, BW Spiller, MS McClain, MD Ohi, D.B. Lacy1, T.L. Cover TL1. (2016) A non-oligomerizing mutant form of Helicobacter pylori VacA allows structural analysis of the p33 domain. Infect Immun 84(9):2662-2670. 1Co-corresponding authors. Cover image.

  1. T. Reyes-Robles, A. Lubkin, F. Alonzo III, D. B. Lacy, V. Torres. (2016) Exploiting dominant-negative toxins to combat Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. EMBO Reports. 17(3):428-40. 

  1. C. Quesada-Gómez, D. López-Ureña, N. Chumbler, H. Kroh, C. Castro-Peña, C. Rodríguez, J. Orozco-Aguilar, S. González-Camacho, A. Rucavado, C. Guzmán-Verri, T. Lawley, D.B. Lacy, E. Chaves-Olarte. (2016) Analysis of TcdBs within the hypervirulent clade 2 reveals an impact of RhoA glucosylation in Clostridium difficile pro inflammatory activitiesInfect Immun. 84(3): 856-865.

  1. N.M. Chumbler, S.A. Rutherford, Z. Zhang, M.A. Farrow, J.P. Lisher, E. Farquhar, D.P. Giedroc, B.W. Spiller, R.A. Melnyk, D.B. Lacy. (2016) Crystal structure of Clostridium difficile Toxin A. Nature Microbiology. 1:15002. doi :  10.1038/nmicrobiol.2015.2

  1. R.E. Craven and D.B. Lacy. (2015) Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin Autoprocessing and Membrane Localization Activities Drive GTPase Glucosylation Profiles in Endothelial CellsmSphere. 1(1):1-9. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00012-15.

  1. 10.M.E. LaFrance, M.A. Farrow, R. Chandrasekaran, J. Sheng, D.H. Rubin, D.B. Lacy. (2015) Identification of an epithelial cell receptor responsible for Clostridium difficile TcdB-Induced cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 112(22):7073-8. PMID: 26038560

  1. X. Wang, Y. Yamamoto, L. Wilson, T. Zhang, B. Howitt, M.A. Farrow, F. Kern, G. Ning, Y. Hong, C.C. Khor, B. Chevalier, D. Bertrand, L. Wu, N. Nagarajan, FA Sylvester, J.S. Hyams, T. Devers, R. Bronson, D. B. Lacy, K.Y. Ho, C. P. Crum, F. K. McKeon, W. Xian. (2015) Cloning and variation of ground state intestinal stem cellsNature. 522(7555): 173-8. PMID: 26040716

  1. C.V Chavez, S. Hoos, G.M. Haustant, A. Chenal, P. England, A. Blondel, S. Pauillac, D. B. Lacy, M.R. Popoff. (2015) The catalytic domains of Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin and related large clostridial glucosylating toxins specifically recognize the negatively charged phospholipids phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. Cell Microbiol. 17(10):1477-93. PMID: 25882477

  1. Z. Zhang, M. Park, J. Tam, A. Auger, GL Beilhartz, D.B. Lacy, RA Melnyk RA. (2014) Translocation domain mutations affecting cellular toxicity identify the Clostridium difficile toxin B pore. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 111(10):3721-6. PMID: 24567384

  1. A.L. Dumont, P. Yoong, X. Liu, C.J. Day, N.M. Chumbler, D.B. James, F Alonzo, N.J. Bode, D.B. Lacy, M.P. Jennings, V.J. Torres. (2014) Identification of a crucial residue required for Staphylococcus aureus LukAB cytotoxicity and receptor recognition.  Infect Immun. 82(3):1268-76. PMID:24379286

  1. M.A. Farrow, N.M. Chumbler, L.A. Lapierre, J.L. Franklin, S.A. Rutherford, J.R. Goldenring, D.B. Lacy (2013) Clostridium difficile toxin B-induced necrosis is mediated by the host epithelial cell NADPH oxidase complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(46):18674-9. PMID: 24167244

  1. T. Reyes-Robles, F. Alonzo, L. Kozhaya, D.B. Lacy, D. Unutmaz, V.J. Torres (2013) Staphylococcus aureus Leukotoxin ED Targets the Chemokine Receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 to Kill Leukocytes and Promote Infection. Cell Host Microbe. 14(4):453-9. PMID: 24139401

  1. D.A. Benefield, S.K. Dessain, N. Shine, M.D. Ohi, D.B. Lacy. (2013) Molecular assembly of botulinum neurotoxin progenitor complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(14):5630-5. PMID: 23509303

  1. L. Slater, E. Hett, K. Mark, N.M. Chumbler, D. Patel, D.B. Lacy, R.J. Collier, D. Hung. (2013) Identification of novel host-targeted compounds that protect from anthrax lethal toxin-induced cell death. ACS Chemical Biology. 8(4):812-22 PMID: 23343607

  1. N.M. Chumbler, M.A.Farrow, L.A.Lapierre, J.L. Franklin, D. Haslam, J.R.Goldenring, D.B. Lacy. (2012) Clostridium difficile Toxin B causes epithelial cell necrosis through an autoprocessing-independent mechanism. PLoS Pathog. 8(12):e1003072. PMID: 23236283

  1. M.G. Chambers, T.M. Pyburn, C. González-Rivera, S.E. Collier, I. Eli, C.K. Yip, Y. Takizawa, D.B. Lacy, T. L. Cover, M.D. Ohi. (2012) Structural Analysis of the Oligomeric States of Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin. J Mol Biol. doi:pii: S0022-2836(12)00892-3. PMID: 23178866

  1. R.N. Pruitt, N.M. Chumbler, S.A. Rutherford, M.A. Farrow, D. B. Friedman, B.W. Spiller, D. B. Lacy. (2012) Structural determinants of the Clostridium difficile toxin A glucosyltransferase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 287(11):8013-20.

  1. D. J. Mushrush, H. A. Koteiche, M. A. Sammons, A. J. Link, H. S. Mchaourab, D. B. Lacy (2011) Studies of the mechanistic details of the pH-dependent association of botulinum neurotoxin with membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 286(30) 27011-8.

  1. K. A. Gangwer, C. L. Shaffer, S. Suerbaum, D. B. Lacy, T. L. Cover, S. R. Bordenstein. (2010) Molecular evolution of the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin gene (vacA). J Bacteriol. 92(23):6126-35.

  1. R. N. Pruitt, M. G. Chambers, K. Ng, M. D. Ohi, and D. B. Lacy (2010) Structural organization of the functional domains of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107(30) 13467-72.

  1. C. Gonzalez-Rivera1, K. A. Gangwer1, M. S. McClain, I. M. Eli, M. G. Chambers, M. D. Ohi, D. B. Lacy2, T. L. Cover2. (2010) Reconstitution of Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin from purified components.  Biochemistry, 49(27), 5743-52. 1Co-first authors, 2Co-corresponding authors.

  1. J. Schmitt, A. Karalewitz, D. A. Benefield, D. J. Mushrush, R. N. Pruitt, B. W. Spiller, J. T. Barbieri, D. B. Lacy (2010) A structural analysis of botulinum neurotoxin type G receptor binding. Biochemistry, 49(25), 5200-5.

  1. S. E. Ivie, M. S. McClain, H. M. S. Algood, D. B. Lacy, T. L. Cover (2010) Analysis of a beta-helical region in the p55 domain of Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin. BMC Microbiol. 10, 60.

  1. R. N. Pruitt, B. Chagot, M. Cover, W. J. Chazin, B. Spiller, D. B. Lacy (2009) Structure-function analysis of inositol hexakisphosphate-induced autoprocessing in Clostridium difficile toxin A. J Biol Chem, 284, 21934-40.

  1. A. Fischer, D. J. Mushrush, D. B. Lacy, and M. Montal (2008) Botulinum neurotoxin devoid of receptor binding domain translocates active protease. PLoS Pathog, 4, 12.

  1. S. E. Ivie, M. S. McClain, V. J. Torres, H. M. S. Algood, D. B. Lacy, R. Yang, S. R. Blanke, T. L. Cover (2008) Helicobacter pylori VacA subdomain required for intracellular toxin activity and assembly of functional oligomeric complexes.  Infection and Immunity, 76, 2843-51.

  1. K. A. Gangwer, D. J. Mushrush, D. L. Stauff, B.Spiller, M. S. McClain, T. L. Cover, D. B. Lacy (2007) Crystal Structure of the Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Toxin p55 Domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 16293-8.

  1. H. M. Scobie, J. M. Marlett, G. J. Rainey, D. B. Lacy, R. J. Collier, J. A. Young (2007) Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2 Determinants that Dictate the pH Threshold of Toxin Pore Formation.  PLoS ONE, 2, e329.

  1. H. M. Scobie, D. J. Wigelsworth, J. M. Marlett, D. Thomas, G. J. Rainey, D. B. Lacy, M. Manchester, R. J. Collier, J. A. Young (2006) Anthrax toxin receptor 2-dependent lethal toxin killing in vivo. PLoS Pathog, 2, 949-55.

  1. R. A. Melnyk, K. M. Hewitt, D. B. Lacy, H. C. Lin, C. R. Gessner, S. Li, V. L. Woods Jr, R. J. Collier (2006) Structural determinants for the binding of anthrax lethal factor to oligomeric protective antigen. J Biol Chem. 281, 1630-5.

  1. D. B. Lacy, H. C. Lin, R. A. Melnyk, O. Schueler-Furman, L. Reither, K. Cunningham, D. Baker, R. J. Collier (2005) A model of anthrax toxin lethal factor bound to protective antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102, 16409-14.

  1. B. A. Krantz, R. A. Melnyk, S. Zhang, S. J. Juris, D. B. Lacy, Z. Wu, A. Finkelstein, R. J. Collier (2005) A phenylalanine clamp catalyzes protein translocation through the anthrax toxin pore. Science 309, 777-81.

  1. D. B. Lacy, D. J. Wigelsworth, R. A. Melnyk, S. C. Harrison, and R. J. Collier (2004) Structure of heptameric protective antigen bound to an anthrax toxin receptor: A role for receptor in pH-dependent pore formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 13147-51.

  1. D. J. Wigelsworth , B. A. Krantz, K. A. Christensen, D. B. Lacy, S. J. Juris, and R. J. Collier (2004) Binding stoichiometry and kinetics of the interaction of a human anthrax toxin receptor, CMG2, with protective antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 23349-56.

  1. D. B. Lacy, D. J. Wigelsworth, H. M. Scobie, J. A. T. Young, and R. J. Collier (2004) Crystal structure of the von Willebrand factor A domain of human capillary morphogenesis protein 2: an anthrax toxin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 6367-72.

  1. M. Mourez, M. Yan, D. B. Lacy, L. Dillon, L. Bentsen, A. Marpoe, C. Maurin, E. Hotze, D. Wigelsworth, R. Pimental, J. D. Ballard, R. J. Collier, and R. K. Tweten (2003) Mapping dominant-negative mutations of anthrax protective antigen by scanning mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100, 13803-8.

  1. K. Cunningham, D. B. Lacy, J. Mogridge, R. J. Collier (2002) Mapping the lethal factor and edema factor binding sites on oligomeric anthrax protective antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 7049-53.

  1. J. Mogridge, K. Cunningham, D. B. Lacy, M. Mourez, and R. J. Collier (2002) The lethal and edema factors of anthrax toxin bind only to oligomeric forms of the protective antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 7045-8.

  1. D. B. Lacy, M. Mourez, A. Fouassier, and R. J. Collier (2002) Mapping the anthrax protective antigen binding site on the lethal and edema factors. J Biol Chem. 277, 3006-10.

  1. A. D. Pannifer, T. Y. Wong, R. Schwarzenbacher, M. Renatus, C. Petosa, J. Bienkowska, D. B. Lacy, R. J. Collier, S. Park, S. H. Leppla, P. Hanna, and R. C. Liddington (2001) Crystal structure of the anthrax lethal factor. Nature 414, 229-33.

  1. D. B. Lacy and R. C. Stevens (1999) Sequence homology and structural analysis of the clostridial neurotoxins. Journal of Molecular Biology 291, 1091-104.

  1. D. B. Lacy, W. Tepp, A. C. Cohen, B. R. DasGupta, and R. C. Stevens (1998) The crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin type A and implications for toxicity. Nature Structural Biology 5, 898-902.

  1. D. B. Lacy and R. C. Stevens (1997) Recombinant expression and purification of the botulinum neurotoxin type A translocation domain. Protein Expression and Purification 11, 195-200.

  1. M. T. Crimmins, S. Huang, L. E. Guise, and D. B. Lacy (1995) Addition of functionalized zinc copper reagents to acetylenic esters: synthesis of 2-carboalkoxy cyclohexenones. Tetrahedron Letters 36, 7061-64.


  1. J. W. Alvin and D.B. Lacy. (2017) Structure function studies of large clostridial toxins. Toxinology, Microbial Toxins.  Springer.  1-18. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6725-6_26-2

  1. W. K. Smits, D. Lyras, D. B. Lacy, M. Wilcox, and E. Kuijper. Clostridium difficile infection. (2016) Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2, 16020.

  1. 51.R.N. Pruitt and D. B. Lacy. (2012) Towards a structural understanding of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B. Front. Cell. Inf. Microbio. 2:28.

  1. D. B. Lacy and R. J. Collier (2002) Structure and function of anthrax toxin. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 271, 61-85.

  1. M. Mourez, D. B. Lacy, K. Cunningham, R. Legmann, B. R. Sellman, J. Mogridge, and R. J. Collier (2002) 2001: a year of major advances in anthrax toxin researchTrends Microbiol. 10, 287-93.

  1. D. B. Lacy and R. C. Stevens (1998) Unraveling structures and modes of action of bacterial toxins. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 8, 778-84.