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Methods

We have 3 Tesla and 7 Tesla imaging capabilites housed at the Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science (VUIIS). At the Center for Translational Vascular and Physiological Imaging we have imaging protocols for 3T brain, 7T brain, 3T upper body, and 3T lower body

coil

3 Tesla Brain

t1-weighted

T1-weighted

purpose: coregistration, visualization of tissue and atrophy

spatial resolution = 1.0 x 0.7 x 1.0 mm3

TR = 8.03 ms, TE = 3.73 ms

readout type:  3D TFE, factor = 192

duration = 4 min 32s

t2 weighted

T2-weighted

purpose: visualization of tissue, edema, and white matter disease

spatial resolution = 0.6 x 0.6 x 5.0 mm3

TR = 3000 ms, TE = 80 ms

readout type:  Multislice TSE, factor = 15

DRIVE sequence

duration = 1 min 48s

FLAIR

FLAIR

purpose: visualization of tissue, white matter disease, and infarcts

spatial resolution = 0.9 x 1.0 x 6.0 mm3

TR = 11000 ms, TE = 120 ms, TI = 2800 ms

readout type:  Multislice TIR, factor = 39

duration = 1 min 39s

ASL

ASL

purpose: regional cerebral blood flow quantitation

spatial resolution = 3.3 x 3.5 x 7.5 mm3

TR = 4200 ms, TE = 12.5 ms

readout type: Multislice FE EPI, factor = 35

pCASL labeling, post-labeling delay = 1800 ms, labeling duration = 1650 ms, dynamics = 30

duration = 4 min 20s

trust

TRUST

purpose: whole-brain oxygen extraction fraction quantitation

spatial resolution = 3.4 x 3.6 x 5 mm3

TR = 1978 ms, TE = 3.62 ms

readout type:  2D TF EPI, factor = 21

TILT labeling, inversion time = 1022 ms

T2-prep module tCPMG = 10 ms, effective TEs = 0, 40, 80, 160 ms

duration = 2 min 24s

PCA

Phase Contrast Angiography

purpose: flow velocity and whole-brain cerebral blood flow quantitation

spatial resolution = 0.5 x 0.5 x 5 mm3

TR = 18.77 ms, TE = 9.16 ms

readout type:  2D T1 FFE, factor = 1

flow-encoding gradient = 40 cm/s

duration = 30s

7 Tesla Brain

7t t1

T1-weighted

purpose: coregistration, visualization of tissue and atrophy

spatial resolution = 0.85 x 0.85 x 0.85 mm3

TR = 4.177 ms, TE = 1.87 ms

readout type: 3D turbo-field-echo

flip angle = 7 degrees

duration = 6 min 48s

swi

Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)

purpose: visualization of cerebral microbleeds and regional venous oxygenation

spatial resolution = 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.6 mm3

TR = 24.67 ms, TE = 14.8 ms

readout type: 3D gradient echo EPI

flip angle = 12 degrees

duration = 4 min 49s

t2star

T2*-weighted

purpose: visualization of tissue, white matter disease, cerebral microbleeds

spatial resolution = 0.40 x 0.47 x 2 mm3

TR = 32 ms, TE = 13 ms

readout type: 3D gradient echo

flip angle = 10 degrees

duration = 4 min 43s

phase contrast

Phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography

purpose: visualization of vascular anatomy and steno-occlusion

spatial resolution = 0.66 x 0.66 x 0.5 mm3

TR = 6.85 ms, TE = 3.85 ms

readout type: 3D gradient echo

flip angle = 12 degrees

duration = 4 min 45s

vessel wall imaging

Vessel wall imaging

purpose: visualization of vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, plaque vulnerability

spatial resolution = 0.8 x 0.8 x 0.8 mm3

TR = 3952 ms, TI = 1375 ms

T2-preparation with TE = 50 ms and refocusing pulses = 2

averages = 2

readout type: 3D inversion recovery with single-shot TSE, refocusing angle sweep = 12-40 degrees

duration = 10 min 30s

flair

FLAIR

purpose: visualization of tissue, vessel wall, white matter disease, and infarcts

spatial resolution = 0.8 x 0.8 x 0.8 mm3

TR = 3952 ms, TI = 1375 ms

T2-preparation with TE = 50 ms and refocusing pulses = 2

readout type: 3D inversion recovery TSE, factor = 100, refocusing angle sweep = 12-40 degrees

duration = 5 min 15s

BOLD

BOLD

purpose: functional MRI (baseline and evoked)

spatial resolution = 2 x 2 x 2 mm3

TR = 2000 ms, TE = 25 ms

slice gap = 0.5 mm

readout type: single shot gradient echo EPI

3 Tesla Upper Body

localizer

Upper body and torso MRI

purpose: localization

Coil: body coil radiofrequency transmission and 16-channel torso coil reception

dwibs

DWIBS

purpose: visualization of lymph nodes

spatial resolution = 1.6 x 1.6 x 5.5 mm3

readout = multi-slice EPI, factor = 71

TR = 7755 ms, TE = 53 ms

flip angle = 90 degrees

b-value = 800 s/mm2

duration = 2 min 42s

lymphangio

Noninvasive lymphangiography

purpose: visualization of lymphatic vessels

spatial resolution = 1.39 x 1.39 x 3 mm3

readout = 3D turbo spin echo, factor = 90

TR = 3000 ms, TE = 600 ms

flip angle = 90 degrees

two 60 mm thick presaturation slabs placed 20 mm inferior and superior to imaging volume

SPIR fat suppression averages = 2

duration = 10 min 51s

mdixon

Multi-point Dixon

purpose: visualization of fat and water

spatial resolution = 0.9 x 0.7 x 2.5 mm3

readout = 3D gradient echo

TR = 3.5 ms, TE= 1.15 ms, TE= 2.3 ms

field-of-view = 520 x 424 x 192 mm3

flip angle = 10 degrees

duration = 18s

t2

T2-weighted fat suppressed

purpose: visualization of tissue, lymph node anatomy, and edema

spatial resolution = 0.3 x 0.3 x 5 mm3

readout = multi-slice turbo spin echo, factor = 12

TR = 3500 ms, TE = 60 ms

field-of-view = 180 x 180 x 50 mm3

duration = 4 min 54s

t1

T1 relaxation map

purpose: quantitative T1 determination

spatial resolution = 1.8 x 1.5 x 5.5 mm3

readout = 3D gradient echo

TR = 100 ms, TE = 4.6 ms

field-of-view  = 520 x 424 x 49 mm3

multi-flip angle = 20, 40, 60 degrees

duration = 3 min 12s

t2

T2 relaxation map

purpose: quantitative T2 determination

spatial resolution = 1.8 x 1.5 x 5.5 mm3

readout = multi-slice turbo spin echo (factor 32)

TR = 4000 ms

multi-TE = 9 to 189 ms; increments of 12 ms

field-of-view  = 520 x 424 x 49 mm3

duration = 4 min 48s

CEST

CEST

purpose: pH, interstitial protein accumulation, molecular imaging

spatial resolution = 0.7 x 0.7 x 7 mm3

readout = 3D EPI readout (factor 7)

TR  = 155 ms, TE = 7.1 ms

saturation pulse: Gaussian-windowed sinc pulse; B1 amplitude = 2 µt; frequency offset Δω = -5.5 to 5.5 ppm; increments of 0.2 ppm

field-of-view  = 180 x 180 x 105 mm3

flip angle = 15 degrees

duration = 6 min 45s

b1

B1 efficiency map

purpose: transmit radiofrequency optimization

spatial resolution = 0.7 x 0.7 x 7 mm3

readout = 3D gradient echo

dual TR = 30, 130 ms, TE = 4.6 ms

field-of-view = 180 x 180 x 105 mm3

flip angle = 60 degrees

duration = 1 min 28s

3 Tesla Lower Body

lower localizer

Lower body MRI

purpose: localization

Coil: sodium 23NA knee quadrature RX coil (Rapid Biomedical GmbH, Rimpar, Germany); body coil TX

sodium

Leg sodium

purpose: regional sodium quantitation (mM/L)

spatial resolution = 3 x 3 x 30 mm3

readout = 3D gradient echo

TR = 130 ms, TE 0.99 ms

field-of-view = 192 x 192 x 210 mm3

flip angle = 90 degrees

duration = 15 min 54s

lower dixon

Dixon

purpose: visualization of fat and water

spatial resolution = 1 x 1 x 5 mm3

readout = 3D gradient echo

TR = 200 ms, TE= 1.15 ms, TE= 2.30 ms

field-of-view = 192 x 192 x 30 mm3

flip angle = 10 degrees

reconstructed images: in-phase, out-of-phase, water-only (e.g. top image), and fat-only (e.g. bottom image)

duration = 2 min 56s

mrl

Noninvasive Lymphangiography

purpose: visualization of lymphatic vessels

spatial resolution = 1.39 x 1.39 x 3 mm3

readout = 3D turbo spin echo

TR = 3000 ms, TE = 600 ms

field-of-view = 445 x 241 x 180 mm3

flip angle = 90 degrees

two 60-mm thick presaturation slabs placed 20mm inferior and superior to imaging volume

duration = 10 min 51s

t2 lower

T2-weighted fat suppression

purpose: visualization of tissue and edema

spatial resolution = 0.3 x 0.3 x 5 mm3

readout = multi-slice turbo spin echo

TR = 3610 ms, TE = 60 ms

field-of-view = 192 x 192 x 225 mm3

flip angle = 90 degrees

duration = 8 min 32s

t1

T1-weighted

purpose: visualization of tissue and fat

spatial resolution = 0.5 x 0.5 x 5 mm3

readout = multi-slice turbo spin echo

TR = 1328 ms, TE 15 ms

field-of-view = 192 x 192 x 225 mm3

flip angle = 90 degrees

duration = 7 min 6s